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How to Use SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS and FOUND_ROWS() With LIMIT and OFFSET in a MySQL Query Using Java and JDBC

If you’ve come across this blog post, you’ve likely experienced the requirement that often crops up when paginating results while querying a MySQL database via Java. As a user, the user generally wants to see the first 10 results on one query, i.e. page 1, then the second 10 results on the next query, i.e. page 2, and so on. But what happens in the situation when the part of the application that displays information to the user wants to know the total number of results from the entire results set that without pagination? For example, to create a visual indication of some sort for the total number of results that are available to look through which could be used to display the total number of pages.

Traditionally you would create two completely separate queries against the database, one which includes the LIMIT and OFFSET parameters in the query and another that does not include these parameters. That’s two database connections, running two independent queries such as;


-- Get paginated results for query
SELECT * FROM table_name LIMIT 10 OFFSET 30;


Then running;


-- Get total number of results for query, excluding pagination
SELECT COUNT(*) AS NumberOfResultsFound FROM table_name;


And you know what, this is a perfectly good approach to take in a lot of scenarios and especially for simple – medium complexity level MySQL queries. Although where this approach soon falls down is when the SQL queries grow and grow, either due to database structure complexities through many table joins or over time as requirements expand. What you’ll soon find yourself doing is replicating the same complex (and time consuming to create/manage at the coding level…) SQL queries that need updating in two places and keeping in sync with zero discrepancies. And this isn’t ideal, lots of duplicated effort and open to errors with the two queries becoming out of sync.

Thankfully, there is a solution to this within MySQL itself, yet if you’ve come across this blog post you’ve probably realised after much searching around that this isn’t particularly well documented either at the MySQL level or at the Java and JDBC level. Hence the reason for writing this up, partially for others, but mainly so I also don’t forget how to do this in the future…

This is where SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS and FOUND_ROWS() parts to the queries come in handy.

For those of you reading this as a traditional database administration type person, you’ll likely be rather familiar with MySQL Workbench for administrating a MySQL database. So if you want to do this within MySQL Workbench, you can simply run the two commands sequentially;


-- Option 1
SELECT * FROM table_name; 
-- OR
-- Option 2
SELECT SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS * FROM table_name; -- Yes, no comma, that’s correct


Then this will produce the results you desire;

— Option 1;

150 Rows

— Option 2;

150 Rows


Yes, that’s the same information. Great. But you’ll notice that we haven’t added in the pagination aspects to the SQL query yet via the LIMIT and OFFSET query parameters. So let’s take a look at what happens when we do that;


-- Option 1
SELECT * FROM table_name LIMIT 10 OFFSET 30; 
-- OR
-- Option 2
SELECT SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS * FROM table_name LIMIT 10 OFFSET 30; -- Yes, no comma, that’s correct


Then this will produce the results you desire;

— Option 1;

40 Rows

— Option 2;

150 Rows


What you’ll notice here is the clear difference in the way MySQL handles the data when you add in the SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS into the second set of queries that is run. On the first query, when the SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS part is not present in the query, the NumberOfRowsFound is the total number of results that takes into account the LIMIT and OFFSET parameters, resulting in 40 rows, i.e. 10 + 30 = 40. Whereas the second query which includes the SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS as part of the query, then this completely ignores the LIMIT and OFFSET parameters, resulting in the desired behaviour for calculating the total number of rows within a MySQL query while ignoring the LIMIT and OFFSET parameters within the query. This is nice as this avoids having to run two duplicate queries as mentioned earlier.

But we’ve just done all of the above within MySQL Workbench which is designed specifically to manage MySQL sessions as needed with ease. Now try taking the same approach within your preferred Integrated Development Environment (IDE) via the SQL editor that is in there and you’ll soon see that this no longer works. Why? Well, quite simply IDEs aren’t dedicated MySQL environments, so they have likely cut corners when it comes to implementing the entire functionalities for MySQL within your preferred IDE. If yours works, great, leave a comment letting others know what you use, I’m sure others reading this would also be interested to know what you are using.

Then we move onto the Java level. Taking the traditional approach for a database connection which roughly follows the logic;


  • Create JDBC Connection using MySQL Driver
  • Create SQLQuery
  • Create PreparedStatement object based on the SQLQuery
  • Add in the relevant information to the PreparedStatment, replacing the ?s with the actual data
  • Execute the PreparedStatement
  • Read the ResultsSet and do what you need to do
  • Close the ResultsSet
  • Close the JDBC Connection


So taking the initial logic from earlier. We first need to run one query, then run a second query that returns the total number of results that doesn’t take into account pagination aspects of the query. Yet if we took the simple approach with Java, which is to run steps 1 – 8 above twice, then you’ll soon notice that the second query returns 0 for the NumberOfFoundRows on the second query, which is not the correct behaviour we are looking for. The reason behind this is because you are running the query as two distinct JDBC Connections, hence, the second query that is run is a new connection to the MySQL database and hence has no reference to what was run on the previous query.

Makes sense? No? Don’t worry. To test this yourself, give it a go. Create 2x pieces of code that replicates the pseudo code for steps 1 – 8 above, with the first query being the SELECT * FROM table_name LIMIT 10 OFFSET 30; and the second query being SELECT FOUND_ROWS(); and you’ll see that the second database query returns 0, which is clearly incorrect.

The reason for this is due to how MySQL handles sessions. And this is where this gets a little bit unclear in the official MySQL documentation, so if anyone has any specific details on this, again, please comment. Based on my own testing, it appears that MySQL has some form of session management, whereby a session is managed when a connection happens to the database. Meaning that we can take advantage of that at the Java level to utilise this.

So instead of steps 1 – 8 above, we take a slightly different approach to exploit MySQL and the SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS and FOUND_ROWS() functionality. In a nutshell, we do this by opening a connection, running two SELECT queries, then closing the connection. This allows us to achieve the desired result that we need.


  • Create JDBC Connection using MySQL Driver (aka. MySQL Session)
  • Create SQLQuery1 – SELECT SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS * FROM table_name LIMIT 10 OFFSET 30;
  • Create PreparedStatement1 object based on the SQLQuery1
  • Add in the relevant information to the PreparedStatment1, replacing the ?s with the actual data
  • Execute the PreparedStatement1
  • Read the ResultsSet1 and do what you need to do
  • Close the ResultsSet1
  • //then do the same again
  • Create SQLQuery2 – SELECT FOUND_ROWS() AS NumberOfRowsFound;
  • Create PreparedStatement2 object based on the SQLQuery2
  • Add in the relevant information to the PreparedStatment2, replacing the ?s with the actual data
  • Execute the PreparedStatement2
  • Read the ResultsSet2 and do what you need to do
  • Close the ResultsSet2
  • Close the JDBC Connection (aka. MySQL Session)


What you’ll notice when you take this approach in your Java code is that your database queries to achieve this will return exactly what you are looking for. i.e.;


  • Rows X – Y (based on pagination controlled by LIMIT and OFFSET MySQL parameters)
  • NumberOfRowsFound (Total number of rows, ignoring the LIMIT and OFFSET MySQL parameters)


Pretty neat really and this can save a hell of a lot of time when managing SQL queries at the Java and JDBC level when dealing with paginated data.

Still confused? I’m not surprised. Re-read again about 5x times and do some testing at the MySQL (via MySQL Workbench and via your preferred Java IDE) and Java levels. Still confused? Leave a comment J This is so poorly documented on the web, the above is simply from what I have found through extensive testing based on extremely minimal information. Hope this helps J

For completeness, here’s the not so useful official MySQL information on the FOUND_ROWS() option,

And finally. It is not 100% clear how MySQL manages sessions at the moment looking at the official documentation. I’ll update this blog post as I find more information on the topic. i.e. What happens when multiple users do the same thing that is overlapping;

  • User 1 – SELECT * FROM table_name LIMIT 10 OFFSET 20;
  • User 2 – SELECT * FROM table_name LIMIT 2 OFFSET 30;
  • User 1 – SELECT FOUND_ROWS(); — Does this bring back #1 or #2?
  • User 2 – SELECT FOUND_ROWS();– Does this bring back #1 or #2?

For my tests, I have replicated the above scenario by adding in an artificial delay in between the two queries run by User 1, so I could then run the first query against a different table to produce a different number of results. What I found when running this test, is that MySQL is indeed rather smart in this area and manages the data correctly through some form of session management. This means that even when 1 – 4 above are run in this order, the second query for User 1, returns the number of FOUND_ROWS() from the first query for User 1, not the first query for User 2, which is the correct behaviour.

Hope this is of use to others who also come across this challenge.

How to Repeat A Cell Value Multiple Times In New Cell In Excel

Ok, this is one that had been bugging me for a while and I’ve finally got around to spending some time to figure out how to do this. Quite boringly, this is actually for creating a WordCloud from Google Analytics data, but hey. It has nice visuals and is a great way of visualising data. Firstly, hats off to people like Jason Davies for creating awesome tools like this for people to use. What a lot of the better WordCloud tools available online allow you to do is to create WordClouds with phrases, not simply just single words. Single word WordClouds can be handy, but they can often lose the context. So personally I was looking for something that could keep things grouped by phrases. Specifically I was looking to turn Google Analytics data, which is in the format of Data | Number of Times, into a WordCloud. On smaller data sets, this is relatively straight forward as you can simply manipulate the data in Excel and copy and paste data a number of times to get the required result. When data sets get large though, this solution soon becomes difficult. And here comes more Excel magic that allows you to manipulate Excel data into the format you need, in this case….

Data from;

  • Name | Number of Times (i.e. Web Developer Job in Manchester | 50

Data into;

  • Web Developer Job in Manchester
  • Web Developer Job in Manchester
  • Web Developer Job in Manchester
  • Etc.

And the beauty of Excel, this is possible with a carefully crafted formula! Whoop!

The simple answer for how to do this is, with A1 being the ‘Name’ in the example above and B1 being the ‘Number of Times’ in the example above;




Then to break this down a little for those who aren’t too familiar with Excel, here’s what all this means;

  • REPT: This function quite simply is for repetition whereby the function is, REPT(text, number_times).
    • Text    Required. The text you want to repeat.
    • Number_times    Required. A positive number specifying the number of times to repeat text.

  • CONCATENATE: This is simply joining two or more things together, i.e. CONCATENATE(“This”, “With”, “This”), which would result in, This With This
  • CHAR(10): This is the formula for inserting a specific character into a formula, in this case a New Line Break character

And that is it. This magical formula formats all of the data into what is required. When you are viewing this data in Excel, it won’t add the data into a new Cell, so simply copy and paste the whole data into another text document and you’ll see the data on new lines as you expect.

Pretty cool! Well I thought so anyhow 🙂



How to Install Servlet Support on a Subdomain on Apache Tomcat 7 Using Command Line, cPanel and WHM

If you have come across this blog post, then like me, you have probably already spent quite a considerable amount of time trying to get this working and scratching your head about why this isn’t working like it should be doing. After finding virtually zero useful and understandable information online about how to do this, I decided to write this blog post to hopefully point you in the right direction now that I’ve managed to figure this out.

A caveat as all technology stacks are completely different. On this example I was running on the following technology stack;

  • CentOS6
  • Apache Tomcat 7
  • cPanel Web Host Manager (WHM)
  • cPanel

What I wanted to do is to run servlets on

As a quick pointer. If you are looking to setup servlet technologies on a new account, you’ll notice that you can’t simply upload your servlets and JSP files on to a new cPanel account and for it to automatically work. What you’ll find if you have done this is that your JSP files will be accessible directly within the URL and the JSP files will show the JSP information rather than rendering the page correctly;



Usually when adding servlet support to a domain, particularly through WHM, this is a relatively straight forward process where you simply navigate to the following settings page within WHM and install servlets on the domain or account you require that is present within one of the individual cPanel accounts on the server, Home > Account Functions > Install Servlets. Unfortunately this doesn’t work for sub-domains which is a rather annoying ‘feature’ within cPanel WHM which is highlighted in the hidden place within the cPanel Tomcat FAQ which specifically states that;


“You cannot add servlet support to subdomains via WHM. Use the command line to add servlet support to subdomains.”


Ok. Now we know that, let’s get onto how to actually do that. Unfortunately, cPanel haven’t been that useful in actually saying how to go about doing this. In essence though, you need to run the following command at the command line;


cd /usr/local/cpanel/scripts/


And then…

./addservlets2 –


And obviously replacing with the correct domain and sub-domain for where you want to install servlet support, which has been taken from this guide from cPanel, which is also a good reference point should you ever need to remove servlet support for a sub-domain too. What this script does is add the relevant information to the server.xml file which controls what websites on the server can use servlet technology from the single Tomcat instance that is running. Unfortunately yet again, this script doesn’t quite work perfectly. It actually adds in the wrong information in one part of the server.xml file which causes your now should-be-working servlets and JSP pages to throw a 404 error and display a blank screen when you try loading them directly within the browser.

Thankfully, this is relatively simple to fix when you know where to look. First you need to find where your server.xml file is located which will be within either of the following file locations; ${catalina.home}/conf/server.xml or tomcat_installation/conf/server.xml. Again, depending on how everything has been configured, your catalina.home environment variable could be pointing anywhere. So if you run the following command to find the location of catalina.home in the first instance;


ps aux | grep catalina


Often on cPanel setups Catalina home is located at: /usr/local/easy/share/easy-tomcat7/

For those of you who aren’t familiar. The ps command in Linux stands for Process Status and the aux part of the command is actually three commands including a: process all users on the system, u: provide detailed information about each process and x: include processes that have no controlling terminal such as daemons. This handy guide about the ps command is worth a read over. Then by joining this with the grep command which is designed to search the server for specific patterns, this will output the information that you need at the command line. This handy guide covers the grep command for reference.

Once you have run the command above, the output at the command line will tell you where the information has been found. Take a good look through this information and you should be able to spot the directory for catalina.home. In the example I was working on, this ended up being within the following file location;




So next you need to simply navigate to the correct location using the command;


cd /usr/local/easy/share/easy-tomcat7/conf


Where you can then view and edit the server.xml file using the command;


pico server.xml


Find the part of this file where the script you ran earlier has added in this additional information for the sub-domain and you will notice that the data within the <alias> section is wrong, it includes rather than Simply remove the www. part, save the file, restart tomcat in your usual way and you’re good to go. Everything should be working as expected now.

For reference, here is an example. Various data has been blurred out as I can’t show this for obvious reasons, so explainers are below the image.



  • Host – name:
  • Host – appBase: /home/{cPanel User}/{Document Root for Sub Domain}
  • Alias –


Next you need to tell Apache to direct requests through Tomcat rather than handling the files itself first. To do this, within your Document Root for the sub-domain, you need to create a .htaccess file if one doesn’t exist already and add the following code to the .htaccess file;


RewriteEngine on

SetHandler jakarta-servlet



All the code above within the .htaccess file relates to Apache Tomcat Connectors. In essence, the two commands mean;

  • SetHandler jakarta-servlet forces requests to be handled by mod_jk. If you neither specify any workers via JkMount and the related directives, not via the environment variable described below, the first worker in the list of all worker will be chosen. You can use SetHandler for example in Location blocks or with Apache 2.2 and later also in RewriteRule.
  • SetEnv JK_WORKER_NAME ajp13 relates to the Apache Tomcat Connectors AJP Protocol

In essence, this handy guide from cPanel with regards to adding Servlet support which summarises the above .htaccess rules as;

“When war files extract, they extract only in the Tomcat folder and not the user’s /home/username/public_html folder. Because they aren’t extracted there, Apache does not recognize the folder and the application will then only load at (using our prior example) and not at

There has been some confusion that these are not automatically set to extract using our default entry in /usr/local/jakarta/tomcat/conf/server.xml but this is not the case. Our default setup does have these extract into /usr/local/jakarta/tomcat/work/Catalina/ path.

Conversely, they will not show up on Apache under port 80 by default. Revising the server.xml also does not work for these to auto extract nor is that even necessary to do. The way to add servlet support and to get all extracted war files showing up under Apache is by adding these two lines to /home/username/public_html/.htaccess file: (see above)”

So there we have it. That’s how to install servlet support on a subdomain on Apache Tomcat 7 using the command line when you can’t easily do this using cPanel Web Host Manager (WHM). Naturally, don’t go playing round with these kinds of settings if you don’t know what you’re doing and most importantly only use this information as a point of reference for how this solution worked for this specific project. Every server configuration is completely different, so you need to understand your own setup before making high level configuration changes like this as one wrong character where it shouldn’t be can bring down entire websites.

Hope that helps for anyone coming across this similar problem!

How to Turn Your Blog Posts into Lead Generating Machines

Blogging, content marketing, SEO, Google, brand building and more – We’re all told that blogging helps with all of these things, and it really does. But what if we want to turn blogging into a lead generating machine that you can highly target to your key audiences with different messages, all automatically? Imagine a mini-website-footer, that is fully customised to each of your target sectors and audiences that is filled with the key information to drive them to take the action you want on top of simply reading the blog post. Sounds pretty cool right? Well, yes, it is. And most importantly, it’s not actually that difficult to implement.


How WordPress Works

So, I’m going to assume you’re using WordPress for your blogging activities. If you’re not, have a word with yourself and get onto WordPress, seriously. There is rarely a reason to use anything other than WordPress for blogging activities in this day and age.

WordPress works in a very, well, WordPress way. So it is important to understand this in the first instance so you can understand what is actually possible. In essence, the end result for what we’re looking for is to add a bit of content at the end of every blog post, or every blog post within a specific category, or even every page on yourself. The options are virtually endless and allows you to customise what is important to you.

To get a feeling for the end result for what I’m about to show you, take a look at this blog post about How Travel Companies Can Stand Out on Googles Search Results Using Review Rich Snippets and most importantly, what you’ll notice at the end of the blog post is a small lead generation area that is designed to turn blog post readers into engaged people and potential customers at some point in the future.



Specifically what you’re seeing above, is the last paragraph of the blog post, followed by the lead generation section, followed by the author section. And you’ll also notice that this section is not present on this blog post you’re reading right now, because this post belongs to a different target market, primarily developers like yourself reading this.

So, back to WordPress. WordPress works in sections. What you see is not simply a full page of content that is being generated in a single go, what is actually happening in the background when a blog posts loads for a user is that WordPress goes away and gets the header, the main navigation, the blog post content, the author information, the footer and many more things. In the background WordPress then pieces all of this information together which is then presented to the user in what they see as just another blog post on the website.

What is important to understand here is that you can interrupt this process and do additional things which is super handy. This is when you can listen out for Hooks and apply Actions and Filters to these Hooks. In essence, an Action does something, and a Filter changes some data in transit. It’s not always quite as straight forward as that in the background, but you get the idea.

If you’re a non-technical person reading this blog post, skim over the code and don’t worry about the finer details. Simple see the type of customisations that can be added to your WordPress blog posts to target your key target markets and generate leads.


Adding Lead Generation Content to the_content()

As mentioned above, there are many Hooks throughout the WordPress codebase. One of these is called the_content() which provides, you guessed it, the content on the page. In this specific example, the blog post content. And because this Hook exists, it is possible to manipulate the data, for example by adding additional information at the start or the end of the blog post content.

What is interesting too though is that every blog post belongs to a specific Category, which again can be used to show different information at the bottom of blog posts that belong to different categories. For example, if you wanted to share different information with people reading technical information VS non-technical information or share different information to people within your different target markets, this is all possible and this is exactly what we’ve done on our website.

So, let’s jump straight in and look at the code and I’ll explain everything in a moment.



The above code is contained within the functions.php file within our Child Theme. In essence what the code is doing is listening out for whenever the_content() Hook is triggered by WordPress, i.e. when someone is looking to read a blog post, then before this information is sent to the user, it is being altered slightly. As the_content() Hook is triggered for both Posts and Pages, the if(is_single()) part is saying that only apply this lead generation content on Blog Posts, not Pages. And likewise, the in_category() part is saying only display this information within this specific category which is the URL slug of the category, not the name of the category.

The $content variable is where all the information for the content is stored. So we want to add data to the start and end of this. In this example, we’ve only added data to the end, although both have been contained to show you the logic of how to add content either before or after the_content() part. Reading through the code should be relatively self-explanatory when you compare with what you can see on the main image at the top for how this is displaying. The only thing to point out specifically is the additional do_shortcode() function which is also called which allows us to output shortcodes from here too rather than just plain text. This can be really handy if you want to add things like buttons and forms before or after the content. When you do this, note the single VS double quotes. Make sure you don’t get these in the wrong order or it won’t work.

And it really is as simple as that. Turn your blog posts and content marketing activities into lead generating machines without manually adding this information at the bottom of every blog post you write, which is extremely time consuming to change in the future as you fine tune your marketing campaigns.

How to Edit MySQL FULLTEXT Search to Find Small Words

By default MySQL FULLTEXT search will not search for words that are less than 4 characters in length. For many things this can be great as many words less than 4 characters are generally stop words such and often aren’t valuable, for example words such as, the, and, if, on, etc. Although this isn’t always the case and in certain circumstances small words are actually really important. For example, let’s say you’re looking for a new developer job using any of the following technologies, ios, php, C#, .Net, ASP, etc. In these cases, the default MySQL FULLTEXT search default minimum characters actually prohibit results being found, which isn’t a great user experience. As such, you may want to update your MySQL FULLTEXT search functionality to enable smaller words to be searched for while quality results are being identified.


Edit My.cnf File

The my.cnf file on your web server generally sits under /etc/my.cnf and allows you to customise your MySQL configuration. You can edit this file by logging into your web server using SSH, navigate to the correct folder and run the command pico my.cnf which will allow you to edit the file.

Now you need to add the following line of code at the bottom of the fie which will allow MySQL FULLTEXT search to search for words with a minimum word length of 2 characters, ft_min_word_len=2

Once you have completed this, save the file.


Restart MySQL

Next you need to restart the MySQL service using the following command, service mysql restart which will ensure that the MySQL service will use the new configuration data once it has restarted. Should you experience a problem restarting MySQL, then remove the code you just added in the my.cnf file or comment out the code with a # at the start of the line. If you’re not aware, the following commands also exist which can come in handy should the MySQL service not restart smoothly, service mysql stop and service mysql start.


Rebuild All MySQL FULLTEXT Indexes

Finally you need to rebuild all your MySQL FULLTEXT indexes that you are using on your database. If you only need the smaller words to be searched on specific tables, then you clearly don’t need to rebuild the ones that aren’t relevant, although it can be handy as this could save you hours of debugging further down the line if different tables are using different minimum word lengths. Login to your phpMyAdmin if you’re running this on your web server to access the MySQL database then run the following command on which ever table you want to update, REPAIR TABLE <TableName> QUICK;

All done! Now your MySQL FULLTEXT Search will be able to search on smaller words than previously.

Some additional resources that can come in handy include official documentation about how to fine tune MySQL FULLTEXT searches.

Using jQuery to Update Elements With an Unknown ID Attribute

This can be a fun one to deal with, particularly when working with scalable web applications. To keep things simple, remember that according to the W3C standards, the ID attribute on any element on a page should always be unique. This enables you to refer to this specific element whenever you want which is handy. This is perfect on simple web applications as you can just name everything as you wish. When working with scalable web applications, this becomes a little more challenging. Let’s keep things simple and use Twitter as an example. At any one point in time when a user searches for “Show me Twitter Accounts Matching ‘Michael'” for example. This will return an unknown number of results and the front end will loop through each of these accordingly. As part of this process, you are going to want to add relevant actions to each of the user accounts, such as Follow Account or Unfollow Account etc. Most scalable web applications these days will use jQuery to perform these kinds of actions on the front end which is perfect as within jQuery you can update the page content when a user does something such as clicking a button. And here’s the snag, the way all of this works is on the ID attribute for the relevant element.

So we need to implement a bit of clever technology to deal with unknown IDs to firstly identify the relevant ID that has been clicked, for example, and then use that ID to update something based on what the user has done. Let’s break this code down and provide a working example for how to do this;

$(document).ready(function () {
       //This line of code is telling jQuery to handle any actions when a user Clicks on an element 
       //that has an ID attribute which starts with 'api-follow-button', i.e. 'api-follow-button-user-account-id-123'
       $(document).on('click', '[id^="api-follow-button"]', function followButton(e) {

                //This line of code prevents the element performing its default action, such as a link being clicked for example

                //This line below ensures that you can then use the ID selector to update the relevant part of the HTML as needed
                //This code is identifying the full ID attribute for the element that has been clicked
                var buttonID = $(this).attr("id");

                var buttonText = "Unfollow";
                var currentState = "Following";

                //Update Links
                //This line of code is allowing you to use a Variable in JavaScript to update the element using jQuery
                $("button[id=" + buttonID + "]")
                        .attr("currentState", currentState);

How to Redirect HTTP to HTTPS on WordPress Using .htaccess

This question comes up a lot about how to redirect an entire website from HTTP to HTTPS on WordPress. It’s actually quite simple to do within the .htaccess file too. Before we jump into the solution, firstly, don’t go playing around with this unless you know what you are doing. Getting anything wrong in your .htaccess file can bring your entire website down. We’ve a whole host of guides on how to implement SSL yourself if you know what you are doing, so take a look at our guide on how to Claim your Free SSL Certificate. Ok, so let’s take a look at the simple task of redirecting your entire website from HTTP to HTTPS on WordPress.

Simply add the following two lines of code to your .htaccess file;


RewriteCond %{SERVER_PORT} 80

RewriteRule ^(.*)$$1 [R=301,L]


Obviously make sure you change the domain name above to your own domain where you want to make the change.

Specifically add them here;


# BEGIN WordPress

&lt;IfModule mod_rewrite.c&gt;

RewriteEngine On

RewriteBase /

RewriteCond %{SERVER_PORT} 80

RewriteRule ^(.*)$$1 [R=301,L]

RewriteRule ^index\.php$ - [L]

RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f

RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d

RewriteRule . /index.php [L]


# END WordPress


The RewriteRule is redirecting anything on HTTP, i.e. Port 80, to HTTPS, i.e. Port 443. This will guarantee that should anyone access your website using HTTP then they will automatically be redirected to the secure version of your website on HTTPS which is the best practice thing to do.

Struggling with implementing HTTPS on your own website? Get in touch and I’m sure it’s something we can help with. As of January 2017, Google is going to be flagging websites as “insecure” that aren’t using HTTPS, so make sure you’ve implemented this in plenty of time to avoid any potential issues.

Developers Are Creating Problems for Themselves and Companies

Last night I gave a talk at a developer meetup group in Liverpool after being asked to speak at the event. The developer group was full of extremely amazing developers who are far more knowledgeable than myself about the finer workings of high end technology. Hats off to them.

After listening to another speaker at the event before me, it was extremely clear that I had just sat through a talk for an hour and I honestly couldn’t tell you anything about what I just listened to. It was very abstract and quite frankly, way over my head. This is not a criticism of the speaker, he was great and the audience loved it. Here’s the thing though, I like to classify myself as a very knowledgeable person working with various technologies on a daily basis, I’m certainly no-where near as smart at tech as many of the people in the room which is a great position to be in as you can learn from them.

So anyway, I jumped up to do my talk titled “Venturing into the Unknown Building” which was designed to be an overview of building a tech startup from scratch while bootstrapping everything from day 1. I do a lot of talks to businesses, companies, conferences, events and so on, I enjoy doing them and sharing my thoughts with those interested. This one was different though, it was clear that the audience was so unbelievably amazing at various technologies that for those in the audience listening to me the content of the presentation must have been similar to a University Professor attending nursery to learn about something. It was fun doing the talk that’s for sure and it was truly a baptism of fire. What struck me most though was the array of endless questions at the end of the presentation. Rarely do you end up answering questions for a good 15-20 minutes at the end of a presentation, but they kept coming, which was great as it got people thinking.

As the old saying goes, to a man with a hammer, the solution to every problem is a nail. And this couldn’t be truer than within the developer community across all platforms and languages. The problem I see time and time again from developers and technology startups that I speak to on a regular basis is that they keep adding technology to solve a problem when actually you don’t need to add technology. At the development level, technology adds complexity to every project which adds time and money to what is being done. It’s time as developers we step back a little and start to ask ourselves what we are really trying to do.

To put this into perspective, here are just a few of the questions that came from the bemused audience last night;

  • So what tools / technology do you use for your release and deployment process?…. i.e. expecting the sophisticated answer for something like Jenkins…….We use SFTP (for the non-teckies reading this, picture the process being viewed as a stone age person using a flint bow and arrow to catch an animal. It’s functional and it works. )
  • When you make a change within the code, how do you know that it doesn’t break anything else?….. i.e. expecting the ‘best practice’ answer that every single unit of code has unit tests wrapped around them and we run these tests before we push code live…… We just build the code well and remove virtually all dependencies throughout the various classes (for the non-teckies reading this, imagine that you’ve baked a cake. Wonderful. Now your unit tests can be loosely thought of as checks at the end to make sure what you’ve made is correct. So in this random example, you’d line up all the raw ingredients next to your baked cake and confirm that they are present within said cake. This needs you to buy two sets of ingredients to test that the cake contains them all. Thus doubling the cost of the cake baking project)
  • When you added this form to the website in the first instance, why didn’t you build in validation checks at every step from the outset?…. i.e. expecting that it was something we simply forgot to do….. We actively avoided doing this because we would have been building features and functionality that people may or may not have needed. Instead, we let the data tell us what validation checks we needed to add in as and when people started using the platform (for the non-teckies, this is talking about the ‘you must enter your First Name’ type notifications that you see on websites)
  • So what frameworks did you use to build the platform? ….. i.e. expecting a cool and sophisticated answer about one of the endless technology frameworks available to choose from today….. We didn’t use any. We just used solid Model View Controller design patterns to structure our code well so that it is maintainable, easy to manage and release changes. (For the non-teckies, think about this as following a recipe. When you have your raw ingredients in the kitchen, which cookbook do you choose and which recipe do you select from them? We simply threw it all in the pan and it turned out beautiful)
  • Why aren’t you streaming your file uploads via Amazon S3 and automatically resizing images as needed within the applications? ….. I.e. expecting to hear that this is in the pipeline to do so….. Because that is simply too much work involved to do and virtually all employers can manage to upload their logo within the guidelines provided. It’s needless work.

Above is just a small selection of the questions that were asked and discussed after the presentation. It was really interesting discussing the whole tech startup process with a group of highly experienced developers. I was certainly the caveman in the room without a doubt when it comes to tech which was really interesting.

The key message from the presentation though was all around Keep It Simply Stupid. You see, when you add complexity into any project, is it any wonder the costs of said project goes up when you then have to spend 50%+ more time developing the project, and is it any wonder that you cannot find the right talent within your organisation who has 5 years experience using technology X. You’re adding complexity out of striving to continually improve development techniques. I’ve seen this on many occasions in very large organisations where the organisation simply revolves around the digital technology hamster wheel to keep rebuilding technology and adding new and different processes into the system instead of truly stopping and thinking about what they are actually doing. Ultimately achieving nothing while working at 150% of capacity continually wondering why nothing is being achieved.

Ultimately the product or service is here for the user of the end user, the customer. You have to ask yourself that when you are looking to implement technology X or process Y within your application, does the end customer really care and are they even going to notice? If the answer is no, then honestly, what are you wasting time even doing it? Seriously. Sure, if you’ve an endless budget and lots of free time to do this, great, you probably work at Facebook or Google. For the rest of us though, let’s bring these dreams down into the practicalities of the day to day.

To put this into perspective, let’s just take a look at one of the largest developer surveys that takes place each year from Stackoverflow, here are some of the most popular technologies in use today;

.NET, ABAP, Android, Android Studio, Angular, AngularJS, Arduino / Raspberry Pi, Arrays, ASP.NET, Atom, aurelia, Bash, C, C#, C++, Cassandra, Clojure, Cloud, Cloud (AWS, GAE, Azure, etc.), Coda, CoffeeScript, ColdFusion, Cordova, Count, CSS, D, Dart, Delphi, Django, Drupal, Eclipse, Elasticsearch, Elixir, Elm, Emacs, Erlang, F#, Fortran, Git, Go, Groovy, Hadoop, Haskell, HTML, HTML, CSS, IntelliJ, iOS, IPython / Jupyter, Java, JavaScript, JQuery, JSON, Julia, Komodo, Kotlin, LAMP, Lighttable, Linux, Lisp, Lua, Matlab, Meteor, MongoDB, MySQL, NetBeans, Node.js, Notepad++, Objective C, Objective-C, OCaml, Other, Perl, PHP, PhpStorm, PL/SQL, PostgreSQL, PowerShell, PyCharm, Python, R, Raspberry Pi, React, Redis, Regex, RStudio, Ruby, Ruby on Rails, RubyMine, Rust, Salesforce, Scala, Sharepoint, Smalltalk, Spark, SQL, SQL (or SQL Server), SQL Server, SQL Server & SQL, String, Sublime Text, Swift, TextMate, TypeScript, Unity, VBA, Vim, Visual Basic, Visual Studio, Visual Studio Code, Windows Phone, WordPress, Xamarin, Xcode, Zend.

The above really is just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to technology choices. Within each of the technologies above, there are equally as many variations, technologies, frameworks and best practice ways of doing things. Technology quite simply is a minefield. I work with technology on a daily basis and I’ve only ever heard of around 50% of these technologies, let alone had the time and inclination to explore them.

Look, I’m not saying that all of these best practice things aren’t something to work towards. They all have their benefits. But let’s be realistic here, every single project is limited based on time and money which ultimately determines the output at the end. You cannot, and I’d argue should not, implement best practice from day 1 for anything, unless that thing is as simple to implement best practice as it is not to. Keep things simple, use solid continual development and agile processes to build on solid functional foundations.

Adding complexity to any project is a risky route to go down and one that I’d always recommend steering away from. Keep your projects as simple as possible instead of keep trying to add in new technologies into the system endlessly just because you can.

A couple of comments from the questions on the evening put this into perspective which include “You had some balls to stand up and do a talk like that in front of a group of specialist developers” and “Your ideas are certainly…. Interesting”, which is a polity way of saying they are a bit “out there”.

One final thought I’d like to leave you with. Technology projects, systems and organisations are as complex as you make them. You cannot then wonder how you’ve got into this position and complain about how difficult things are. Take a staged approach with developing and continually improving any technology system instead of simply bolting on as many pieces of technology as you can just because they are cool to do or are deemed best practice. Save yourself endless hours, weeks and months of time building things that ultimately adds no value to the project, adds cost and makes everything difficult to maintain.

Great talk, great group of people, great discussions. Food for thought from a different perspective. See everyone at a future event.

Make Sure You’re Using AMP Analytics When Using AMP

Make Sure You’re Using AMP Analytics When Using AMP

We recently wrote about how awesome the new Accelerated Mobile Pages (AMP) technology is for improving page load times on your website. Well, yes it is, but something to bear in mind that we’ve just come across. Google recently wrote a blog post about how to set up Analytics on your AMP pages only 4 days ago, which quite frankly is a little slow since we’ve been using AMP technology for well over 4 months now and it has never been on our radar that this wouldn’t be tracked by default out of the box. Anyway, we’ll let this one slip.

The crooks of it though is that you’re probably not including tracking on any of these AMP pages that you’ve implemented which is a tad annoying. From a WordPress perspective, make sure you’re using the AMP Analytics plugin which will add Google Analytics tracking to your AMP pages when they are loaded by web browsers and Google. You could be missing out on a significant amount of tracking data when tracking the performance of your campaigns. For anything non-WordPress related, you’ll have to get into the tech to implement this manually within your web application which is certainly going to be a tad more time consuming. Drop us an email if you need any help with getting this set up on your own websites and web applications.

Automating Your Email Marketing Campaigns with WordPress and MailChimp

Automating Your Email Marketing Campaigns with WordPress and MailChimp

Something which has been on our own to-do list for far too long than I’d care to admit, we’ve finally got around to automating our email marketing campaigns. Firstly, if you aren’t on our mailing list yet, why, it’s awesome and we share some amazing content like this you’re reading now. Secondly, get signed up at the bottom of this page by entering in your email address.

Now let’s look at what we’ve recently got set up and how we’ve automated our entire email marketing campaigns so we can spend more time focusing on writing great content, running events and training courses and generally connecting with businesses and people much more efficiently. Why spend time doing something manually if you don’t need to, right?


What’s Wrong with Manually Sending Email Marketing Campaigns?

Ok, so let’s quickly cover this one. Firstly, if you are sending email marketing campaigns through something like Outlook, you are doing it all wrong. Head over to our Really Simple Guide to Email Marketing to understand why.

Now, we’re assuming you’re using an email marketing tool such as MailChimp. And do you know what, sending email marketing campaigns manually is absolutely fine. There is nothing wrong with doing this at all. But. If you are sending email marketing campaigns manually to share content such as Blog Posts or Events that you are running, you are wasting time doing this manually when you could automate the entire process. It’s all about saving time so you can be more productive in what you are doing.

So let’s look at how you can automate your email marketing campaigns with WordPress and MailChimp.


WordPress RSS Feeds

If you didn’t already know, virtually every type of content on your WordPress website has an automatically generated RSS Feed URL that can be accessed when you know where you are looking. Take a look through the WordPress RSS Feeds List for information on where to look.

For example, here is our main Blog’s RSS Feed URL if you want to take a look what this looks like;

Find the relevant RSS feed that you want to use to send email marketing campaigns to your audience as you’ll need this shortly.


MailChimp Groups

Within MailChimp you can segment your Lists into different Groups based on what people have subscribed to. There are many way of organising your MailChimp subscribers, so we’re not going to cover that right now. For the purpose of this blog post, we’re going to use Groups to segment a single List based on what people are interested in which helps to keep everything easy to manage to avoid duplication.

To create a Group in MailChimp you navigate to your List, then click on Manage Subscribers then Groups which will allow you to enter in specific information about how you want to group people together.




The reason you want to create a new Group is so that you can allow your audience to subscribe to multiple different groups from the same Newsletter. This allows you to send emails to specific groups of people within your mailing list. Simply configure the relevant settings for yourself as this information will display when a user is updating their subscription preferences;




Ok, so now you’ve created a group, let’s start to join everything together. In the first instance you can even migrate people into specific groups should you wish.

Here is how the data you enter in this section will display when the user is managing their profile on your newsletter.




MailChimp RSS Campaigns

Create a Campaign

Firstly, create a new campaign in MailChimp but be sure to select an RSS Campaign as the campaign type as this comes with a few handy settings that have been automatically built in for you.




Confirm your RSS Feed Settings

Enter in all of the settings related to when you want to be sending your campaigns and where the data is coming from. In this example, we’re looking to send out content from the Developer Blog so we enter in this information here.




Select Your Recipients

Next you need to select who you are sending the emails to. Here you are going to want to send emails to a Group of users you have just created earlier. This could be for a specific set of content on your website or even a specific interest if your website has multiple interests on there.




There are a lot of options here so we’re not going to cover everything. Use the options that are best suited for your individual needs.


Personalise your Campaign Information as Usual

If you are reading this blog post, you’ll already be used to creating your campaigns as normal and personalising the relevant information so we’ll skip over this bit here. Just make sure you do this when you are creating the campaign.


Choose an RSS Template

Simplicity is key here which is why you should choose one of the default RSS templates which you can select. This will automatically include lots of handy information for you which will speed up your development for sending RSS campaigns.




Design your Email Template as Usual

Again, we’re not going to cover this part here. All of the pre-populated fields have been created for you when using an RSS template, so you’re all good to go. Simply personalise the look and feel of your campaign as you see fit.


Preview & Test

The next step is to preview and test your campaign. This is so important to do as you can really annoy people when you mess up a campaign and send it out with missing information and or incorrect information.


Start RSS Campaign

Then you’re good to go, start your RSS campaign running and you will never have to worry about manually sending email marketing campaigns again.




This really is just the starting point about what you can do when you start to automate your email marketing campaigns. Take the time to think through what you are doing, why you are doing is and what you are looking to get out of it. Automation can save you so much time when you think strategically about what you are doing.